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According to legend, Sinope was founded by the Amazons, who named it after their queen, Sinova. The city’s ancient inhabitants ascribed its foundation to Autolycus, a companion of Hercules. Destroyed by the wandering Cimmerians, it was re-founded tow
ard the end of the 7th century BC by a Greek colony from the city of Miletus. The city is also the birthplace of the cynic philosopher Diogenes.
Sinop ultimately became the most flourishing Greek settlement on the Black Sea. As a terminus of the trade routes from Upper Mesopotamia, it commanded much of the maritime trade of the Pontic region and by the 5th century BC it had established many colonies on the coast and enjoyed naval suprema cy in the Black Sea. In 183 BC it was captured by Pharnaces I and became the capital of the kingdom of Pontus. When Lucullus conquered Sinope for Rome in 70 BC, the city was nearly destroyed by fire. In 47 BC Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there, named Colonia Julia Felix.
It remained with the Eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantium). It was a part of the Empire of Trebizond from the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204 until the capture of the city by the Seljuq Turks in 1214. After 1261, Sinop became home to two successive independent emirates following the fall of the Seljuqs: the Pervâne and the Candaroğlu. The Ottomans captured the city in 1458.
In November 1853, shortly after the outbreak of the Crimean War, the Russian navy dramatically attacked Sinop, destroying the Ottoman fleet and reducing large parts of the city to ashes. This attack leaded Britain and France to declare war on Russia.
Sinop’s extant monuments include a ruined ancient citadel rebuilt during Byzantine and Seljuk periods, some isolated columns and inscribed stones built into the old walls and dating from the early Greek and Roman periods, and the Alâeddin Camii (Mosque), built in 1214. A 13th-century Alâiye religious school now houses the local museum. The town’s citadel dates from that early age and the foundations of the Temple of Serapis is to be found on the grounds of the Archaeological Museum where some beautiful golden icons are displayed. The 13th century Alâeddin Mosque, the Alaiye Madrasah, and the Balatlar Church are of interest in the city.
The hinterland around Sinop is drained by the Gök River and is mountainous and partly forested. Agriculture employs most of the labor force. Corn, flax, and tobacco are grown in the valleys and on the fertile coastal strip.
Traditional nautical woodcarvings, good crystal and the original cotton clothes of the city are praiseworthy and unique, so you will want to have examples of these artifacts. The seaside hotels and holiday villages are really nice to sit in a fish restaurant by the harbor and watch the perfect combination of green and light blue while sipping your wine. Hamsilos Fjord, 11 km from the city center is the only fjord in the country.
Gerze, situated on a peninsula, 40 km southeast of Sinop, will provide you with fine beaches, meadows, restaurants and parks, while Camgolu provides camping facilities in a large forest sloping to the sea. At Boyabat, the largest town of the province, there are many rock tombs and a citadel.